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The Neo-Colonial modus operandi in the Persian Gulf region

OWoN: Yet another talking point of exposures the MSM refuse to promote. Truth is ugly to crooks.

Inbred Oil Kings & Bush League Criminals

Left Hook
By Dean Henderson
19 September 2014

With revolution percolating through the oil-rich sands of the Middle East, the Rothschild/Rockefeller energy oligopoly which has enslaved humankind and decimated planet Earth for the last century is coming apart at the seams. The arrogance, viciousness and stupidity of the self-proclaimed “illuminated ones”, who operate their energy matrix from the City of London, is being writ large for all to see.

Troops from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) earlier entered Bahrain to help the al-Khalifa petro-monarchy put down pro-democracy protests. Qatar’s al-Thani royals backed al Qaeda thugs now tearing Libya to shreds. Now the Saudis will train “moderate” Syrian rebels on US taxpayer nickel to battle ISIS jihadis – also trained in Jordan by the CIA.

This dizzying array of oil sheik desperation – condoned and encouraged by the City of London banksters – represents a last-ditch effort at salvaging the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) – the neo-colonial modus operandi in the Persian Gulf region since the halcyon days of Ronald Reagan.

(Excerpted from Chapter 5: Persian Gulf Rent-a-Sheik: Big Oil & Their Bankers…)

The six GCC nations- Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, UAE, Qatar and Oman- sit atop 42% of the world’s oil. The single-family monarchies that control them were hand-picked by the British Empire. They work in tandem with Israel to steal crude oil from the Arab people. They, not China or Japan, are the biggest purchasers of US Treasuries. Their interests lie not with their people, but with the City of London and Wall Street.

The bloodline elite of the six GCC nations are heavily invested in Western economies. High volume crude oil production keeps this investment capital flowing to Wall Street and the City of London while allowing the GCC elites to live opulent lifestyles. As Saudi Oil Minister Hisham Nazer put it, “We now have a mutual bond of self-interest and reciprocal security interests.”

As Western dependence on Third World resources has increased, it has become increasingly necessary for the international bankers and their corporations to include local elite cliques in their capital accumulation schemes, making a small group of local people extremely wealthy so that this group will cooperate in selling local resources cheaply to the West.

An example of this utilization of local elites as surrogates can be seen through the case of the richest man in the world. He is Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah- Sultan of Brunei- a tiny oil enclave on the island of Borneo, where Royal Dutch/Shell holds a virtual monopoly over the oil industry and has paid the Sultan well to keep it that way. The Sultan of Brunei is worth over $60 billion and lives in a 1,778-room palace.

These local elite, in turn, hand over their wealth to Western bankers for protection from devaluation and bank failure. This robs their home country of much-needed capital and often precipitates devaluation and debt crises. The US has itself become a debtor nation and owes its debts, in part, to these same Third World elites, who own trillions on deposit at large US banks, while their fellow countrymen live in abject poverty. Egyptian elites, for example, hold $60 billion in deposits in foreign banks, while the average Egyptian earns $650/year. In the case of the GCC, the amount of recycled petrodollars flowing back into Western investments is truly staggering.

The Saudis have over $600 billion invested abroad. Citigroup owns 33% of the Saudi American Bank but is itself now controlled by members of the House of Saud. In 1993 Saudi Prince al-Waleed bin Talal, owner of Saudi Commercial Bank, plunged $590 million into Citibank. bin Talal now owns 17.34% of Citigroup, while Crown Prince Abdullah owns a 5.4% share, making them the bank’s two largest shareholders. bin Talal is also the 2nd largest shareholder in Rupert Murdoch’s Newscorp, parent of both Fox News and the Wall Street Journal.

The Saudi Citigroup share purchases were facilitated by the Washington-based Carlyle Group, which is 20%-owned by the Mellon family that owned Gulf Oil and now owns a large chunk of Chevron Texaco. Carlyle is led by former Reagan and Bush Defense Secretary and Reagan NSC Chairman Frank Carlucci. George Bush Sr., James Baker III and former British Prime Minister John Major are senior advisers and board members at Carlyle. Bush Sr. served as Carlyle investment advisor to the bin Laden family until November 2001.

In 1995 Prince bin Talal teamed up with Canadian developer Paul Reichmann, Loews chairman Larry Tisch and Lebanese financier Edmund J. Safra- a close friend of war-criminal Henry Kissinger- to buy London’s Canary Wharf complex for $1.04 billion.

UAE ruling Sheik Zayed runs the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority. Much of its money is handled by private investment and equity firms like Carlyle Group and Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette- which is 18% owned by the Saudi Olayan Group. Olayan also owns big chunks of JP Morgan Chase and CS First Boston. The director of the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority serves as Carlyle Group’s Asian adviser.

Bahrain plays a role in this petrodollar recycling, serving as the key unregulated offshore banking center for both the GCC sheiks and their international mega-bank partners. Bahrain is also home to the US Fifth Fleet and a large number of refineries, which process Saudi crude.

Lebanon had been the premier banking center of the Middle East in earlier days, but with Beirut reduced to rubble by Israeli shelling, merchant banking has moved to the duty-free port of Dubai in the UAE, now the biggest gold market on the planet. Investment banking is centered in Kuwait.

But it is Bahrain which is home to the vast multi-billion dollar pool of money market funds derived from GCC/Four Horsemen petrodollar revenues. Most banks in Bahrain are foreign-owned and all US mega-banks have operations there. Many of Bahrain’s banks are owned by GCC elite and serve as a major conduit in the petrodollar recycling process. The Kuwait Burgan Bank, for example, owns a 28% stake in one of Bahrain’s largest banks- the Middle Eastern Bank.

The most powerful firm in Bahrain is Investcorp, which took big stakes in Saks Fifth Avenue, BAT, Tiffany, Gucci, Color Tile, Carvel Ice Cream, Dellwood Foods, New York Department Store of Puerto Rico, Circle K and Chaumet. Investcorp was co-founded in 1983 by Bahrain ruling family scion Sheik Khalifa bin Sulman al-Khalifa- who also owned a big chunk of the infamous BCCI. A recent Investcorp prospectus lists the Bahrain Minister of Finance as an owner.

Investcorp’s chairman is Abdul-Rahman Al-Ateeqi, former Oil and Finance Minister of Kuwait. Its Vice-President is Ahmed Ali Kanoo of the wealthy Saudi Kanoo family, which is worth an estimated $1.5 billion. Former Saudi Oil Minister Sheik Yamani was one of Investcorp’s founding shareholders, along with seven members of the Saudi royal family. Investcorp has its eight-story headquarters in Bahrain, along with a Park Avenue New York office and a Mayfair district office in London.

Sheik al-Khalifa’s partner in launching Investcorp was Nemir Kirdar, the bank’s president who was in charge of Chase Manhattan’s Persian Gulf operations. Numerous Investcorp senior executives are Chase alumni as well.

Many Investcorp purchases turned out to be flops and there is a shady side to the bank. French jeweler Chaumet executive Charles Lefevre said Investcorp fudged Chaumet numbers to entice shareholders while trying to pawn its shares off at a higher price to other Persian Gulf investors. Another complaint alleged that Investcorp attempted to loot the Saudi European Bank in Paris.

Investcorp board member Abdullah Taha Bakhsh, a reclusive Saudi billionaire, invested heavily in George W. Bush’s Harken Energy. So did Bahrain’s ruling Sheik al-Khalifa. Bush and co-owner Dick Cheney morphed their Arbusto Energy into Harken when Bush friend James Bath provided them with $50,000 in seed money.

Bath owned Skyway Aircrafts and was under investigation by the DEA for working with GCC sheiks in flying $100 bills to the Cayman Islands. Since Bath often borrowed money from Saudi Sheiks Khalid bin Mahfouz- BCCI’s largest shareholder- and Mohammed bin Laden, these wealthy Saudis likely provided the $50,000 in seed money to launch what became Harken Energy.

Bin Mahfouz and bin Laden helped Harken sign an exclusive offshore oil drilling agreement just prior to the Gulf War. In January 1990 President Bush Sr. had approved preferential trade status for the Iraqi regime. That very same month Harken Energy was awarded the biggest offshore oil concession ever in the Persian Gulf off the coast of Bahrain.

Other notable Harken investors included the Ft. Worth-based Bass brothers, the South African Rupert family, the Harvard Endowment Fund, and Rothschild lieutenant George Soros. In 1989 the government of Bahrain abruptly cut off talks with Amoco concerning the same oil concession after Emir al-Khalifa decided to grant it instead to Harken Energy at the urging of Mobil’s Middle East operation’s chief Michael Ameen. Financing for the project was arranged by Bush Jr. friend Jackson Stephens, the Arkansas owner of Worthen Bank who was instrumental in bringing BCCI to the US and who donated $100,000 to the Bush Sr. 1988 Presidential Campaign.

New York attorney Allen Quasha and his father William Quasha of Manila helped swing the Harken deal with Bahrain. In 1961 Bill Quasha helped George Bush Sr. secure rights to drill the first oil well in Kuwait via Zapata Offshore Oil Company. Later Quasha served as legal counsel to the CIA drug laundry Nugan Hand Bank in the Philippines. His son Allen became the biggest stockholder in Harken. The Quasha’s own 21% of a Swiss company controlled by the South African Rupert family, who were major backer’s of that country’s former apartheid regime.

Just one month before Iraq invaded Kuwait, George W. Bush sold 66% of his stake in Harken Energy at a 200% profit. While stock analysts like Charlie Andrews of 13D Research were putting out “buy” recommendations on Harken, on June 22, 1990 Bush cashed in $840,000 in Harken stock, later saying he “sold into good news”. Bush knew that Harken had violated the terms of a loan package and was now on the ropes financially. Five weeks later Harken reported a $23 million loss and its stock price crashed.

Bush didn’t report his timely Harken Energy stock sale until March 1991. This was illegal, but Bush claimed the SEC had misplaced the forms and he was never prosecuted. In 1993 Bush stepped down from Harken’s board. With heavy financial backing from Enron, he became Governor of Texas.

Bush was defended during the Harken scam by Baker, Botts lawyer Robert Jordan, who now-President Bush paid back in 2000 with an appointment as US Ambassador to Saudi Arabia. The forgiving SEC chief during the Harken debacle was Richard Breeden, one of Bush Sr.’s biggest political supporters. SEC counsel was James Doty, another Bush supporter who helped George W. buy the Texas Rangers baseball team.

When George W. Bush merged Harken with Spectrum 7 Energy, he brought in Investcorp insider Abdullah Taha Bakhsh, who bought 17.6% of Harken through a Netherlands Antilles holding company. Some say Baksch was a front man for Sheik Khalid bin Mahfouz. Baksch was a major investor at the Bahrain-based Investcorp, which was launched by former Chase Manhattan executives. In 1988 he looted an Arab bank in London.

Bakhsh was also accused of looting the Al Saudi Banque of Paris when it collapsed in 1988 just ahead of the strikingly similar collapse of BCCI. Bakhsh is a shareholder in First Commercial Financial Group, a Chicago-based commodity futures trading firm which was sanctioned by US regulators for check-kiting and fraud. Just before the Gulf War broke out, Investcorp sold a 25.8% share to an Iraqi company, despite a Bahrain law prohibiting such transactions.

The Saudis and Kuwaitis are the clear leaders in GCC overseas investments. The Kuwaiti Investment Authority has over $250 billion invested abroad and is the biggest foreign investor in Japan and Spain. Citigroup and JP Morgan Chase handle Kuwaiti investments in the US, where the al-Sabah clan owns stock in each of the 70 largest firms listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Their US holdings include 100% of Occidental Geothermal, 29.8% of Great Western Resources, 100% of the Atlanta Hilton Hotel, 45% of the Phoenician Hotel and 11% of Hogg Robinson.

In Germany they own 14% of Daimler-Chrysler, 25% of Hoechst (the Nazi IG Farben spin-off and the world’s 2nd largest pharmaceutical company), 20% of Metallgesellschaft and part of German retailer Asko. In Italy they own 6.7% of Afil, the Agnelli family holding company which owns Fiat and several other endeavors. In the UK Kuwait owns St. Martin’s Properties and 5.4% of Sime Darby. In Malaysia their K-10 company owns the biggest newspaper- the New Straits Times Press. In neighboring Singapore, the Kuwaitis own 10.6% of Singapore Petroleum, 37% of Dao Heng Holdings and 49% of the securities firm J. M. Sassoon.

Kuwait Oil Company (KOC), was technically nationalized in the early 1980’s, but remains close to its former parents, Chevron Texaco and BP Amoco, selling the two Horsemen oil at a discount. KOC made wealthy the al-Sabah emirs and the al-Ghanim family, who acted as the company’s agent for decades. By 1966 KOC bought a Danish subsidiary and became the first Middle Eastern oil company to retail gasoline in Europe. KOC has been the most aggressive GCC firm in its overseas downstream investments. In 1982 it bought hundreds of Q8 gas stations across Europe. By 1987 it owned over 5,000 gasoline retailers in Europe and South Asia. Just last week KOC was awarded a contract to build oil refineries in South Korea.

The Kuwaitis even bought into one of the Four Horsemen- BP Amoco. As of 1988 they owned a 22% share. They have since reduced their share to 9.85%, still a controlling interest. They purchased the Naples, Italy refining operations of Mobil, own nearly 4% of ARCO (now part of BP Amoco), and 2.39% of Phillips Petroleum (now merged with Conoco). In Spain the Kuwaitis operate the Torras Hostench chemical firm. In Japan they operate Arabian Oil.

All told GCC investments in Western banks and corporations total in the trillion. The bulk of this is invested in long-term US and Japanese government bonds. The GCC sheiks are crucial to floating the entire house of cards that is the global economy. Their guaranteed purchases of US debt, which has largely been accrued through defense spending in the Persian Gulf region, keep the US dollar strong and prevent the international financial architecture from crumbling. The emirs and their elite friends also bankroll CIA covert operations, while re-balancing their trade surpluses with the West through the purchase of US weaponry to protect their oil fiefdoms.

Events in Ukraine and the Middle East have exposed the fragile position of the Rockefeller/Rothschild energy oligopoly. Their nuclear option is on shaky ground. Their GCC oil monarchs are embattled. Now is the time to get serious about a 21st century green energy renaissance controlled not by the City of London “illuminated ones”, but by the people.



  1. U.S. On Track to Become the World’s Biggest Producer of Liquid Petroleum
    Move over Saudi Arabia, there’s about to be a new king of liquid petroleum in the world: the United States.

    With U.S. production booming, experts predict Saudi Arabia will be surpassed in the production of oil, ethane, propane and other liquid fuels by its No. 2 rival this month or next, the Financial Times (FT) reports.

    As of August, American and Saudi companies were nearly even in their output of 11.5 million barrels a day. If the U.S. does pass up Saudi Arabia, it will be the first time that’s happened since 1991.

    American oil corporations have significantly increased oil production since last decade thanks to hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and other developments in drilling technology that opened up previously untouched reserves in Texas and North Dakota and known, but harder-to-reach deposits elsewhere.

    Expanded oil exports have helped reduce the U.S. trade deficit, while shrinking the nation’s need to import petroleum from volatile regions like the Middle East. Imports are expected to account for only 21% of U.S. liquid fuel consumption next year, down from 60% in 2005, the FT’s Ed Crooks and Anjli Raval reported.

    The increased production is causing a fall in the price of oil. The benchmark Brent crude was at $95.60 a barrel last week, down nearly 25% from its peak of more than $125 in early 2012.

    But with the increased production from fracking has come contaminated groundwater and even earthquakes in some areas where the technique is used.

    -Noel Brinkerhoff

  2. Rothschilds’ Bank of America

    The NSC was funneling arms to the Nicaraguan contras before Oliver North’s resupply network was operational. US aid to Saudi Arabia was being forwarded to the contras via the Karachi, Pakistan-based Bank of Credit & Commerce International (BCCI). [1]

    While House of Saud-bound money was being diverted towards the contras, one of BCCI’s biggest initial depositors was the Shah of Iran, whose Swiss BCCI accounts were bulging.

    With the ruling families of the Nixon’s “Twin Pillars” on board, BCCI would become the mixing bowl into which Persian Gulf petrodollars were stirred with generous helpings of drug money to finance worldwide covert operations for the CIA and its Israeli Mossad and British MI6 partners.

    BCCI was the bank of choice for the world’s most notorious dictators, including the Somoza family, Saddam Hussein, Philippine strongman Ferdinand Marcos and Haiti’s Jean-Claude “Papa Doc” Duvalier. The South African apartheid regime used BCCI, as did Manuel Noriega, who strode into BCCI’s Panama branch regularly to collect his $200,000/year CIA paycheck.

    BCCI was favorite laundry mat for the Medellin Cartel and for the world’s newest heroin kingpins, the leaders of the CIA-controlled factions of the Afghan mujahadeen. BCCI financed Reagan’s secret arms sales to Iran and worked with Robert Calvi’s Banco Ambrosiano. It was the conduit for dirty money generated by Mossad fugitive financier Marc Rich and washed the funny money emanating from the now bankrupt Enron in its reincarnated state as Chicago-based Pinnacle Banc Group. [2]

    Frequenting the Karachi headquarters of BCCI was valued account-holder Osama bin Laden.

    With branches in 76 countries, BCCI dealt in conventional and nuclear weapons, gold, drugs, mercenary armies, intelligence and counter-intelligence. These interests were often shielded behind more legitimate fronts such as the shipping of Honduran coffee or Vietnamese beans. The bank had close relations with the CIA, Pakistan’s ISI, the Israeli Mossad and Saudi intelligence agencies. It was the financial glue that bonded numerous seemingly disparate public scandals together.

    BCCI’s main stockholders were monarchs and wealthy oil sheiks from the Reagan-manufactured Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations.

    It was founded in 1972 in Pakistan by Agha Hasan Abedi, a close friend of Pakistani military dictator Zia ul-Huq. Abedi initially solicited deposits for the bank from expatriate Pakistanis working in the UAE.

    BCCI took full flight when Bank of America put up $2.5 million for a 30% stake. At that time Bank of America was the largest bank in the world and controlled by N.M. Rothschild & Sons. [3]

    The “N” stands for Nathan, who once loaned French tyrant Napoleon five million pounds at the same time he was loaning his British Waterloo adversary the Duke of Wellington money to equip his army. Nathan Rothschild later commented of the incident, “It was the best business I have ever done.” The “M” stands for Mayer, a student of the esoteric Jewish Cabala who launched the Rothschild banking dynasty with embezzled money and acquired nobility titles for the family by the early 19th Century.

    In 1885 Queen Victoria baronized Nathan’s grandson, while the brothers conducted global transactions for governments in England, France, Prussia, Austria, Belgium, Spain, Italy, Portugal, the Germanic states and Brazil. They were bankers to the Crowns of Europe with investments as far afield as the US, India, Cuba and Australia. [4]

    In 1996 41-year-old Amschel Rothschild, who ran the family’s financial colossus, died in a mysterious suicide. Rothschild Asset Management, which Amschel ran, lost $9 million in the year preceding his death.

    1. Continued from: Rothschild's Bank of America
      The losses occurred as Evelyn Rothschild was sewing up a joint venture with China’s second largest bank. Amschel was found dead at the base of a towel rack hung five feet off the floor in his Paris hotel bathroom. One reporter quipped, “Hanging himself could not have been easy for a man 6’1”. [5]

      Bank of America executive Roy P. M. Carlson orchestrated the BCCI deal. Carlson later joined Safeer, the Tehran consulting firm founded by former CIA Director and Ambassador to Iran Richard Helms. Carlson became chairman of Bert Lance’s troubled National Bank of Georgia (NBG), which had already been secretly taken over by BCCI with the help of Saudi billionaire Ghaith Pharaon.

      NBG was a client of Kissinger Associates, which also “advised” the Saddam-arming Banca Nacionale de Lavoro (BNL). Helm’s partner at Safeer – Iranian business tycoon Rahim Irvani – controlled the Melli Group where Carlson served as president. Irvani founded an off-shore company to hide BCCI’s purchase of former US Defense Secretary Clark Clifford’s First American Bank. Helms engineered the takeover.

      BCCI’s major investors were GCC oil sheiks. The head of the ruling family of Abu Dhabi Sheik Zayed bin Sultan al-Nahiyan was BCCI’s biggest shareholder – controlling 77% of BCCI’s stock. [6]

      The late Sheik Khalid bin Mahfouz, the Saudi Arabian billionaire who controlled National Commercial Bank – the biggest bank in the Arab world – owned 20%. The al-Khalifa monarchs of Bahrain and the al-Qaboo monarchs of Oman also owned large shares in BCCI. And BCCI owned the National Bank of Oman.

      In 1976 BCCI set up a subsidiary in the Cayman Islands known as International Credit & Investment Company (ICIC). It was through this branch of BCCI, as well as Karachi branch – run by President Zia ul-Huq’s son – that the most circumspect financial transactions took place.

    2. Continued from: Rothschild's Bank of America
      A chart found in a White House safe concerning Oliver North’s Nicaraguan contra resupply efforts listed an “I.C.” in the Cayman Islands at the epicenter of North’s Enterprise network. Private donations were funneled through ICIC and ended up in Lake Resources’ accounts at Credit Suisse in Geneva controlled by Richard Secord. Secord was then a key “advisor” to the House of Saud.

      The Washington Post reported that “I. C.” sent $21,182 to George Bush Sr. West Texas oil buddy William Blakemore III’s Gulf & Caribbean Foundation. [7]

      ICIC did a huge amount of business with Banco de America Central (BAC). The English translation of the bank’s name is Bank of Central America, a name eerily similar to that of BCCI sugar daddy Bank of America. In fact, BAC was set up by Wells Fargo Bank (the other half of the West Coast Four Horsemen of Banking which often works in tandem with Bank of America) and the Nicaraguan pro-Somoza sugar elite. [8]

      BAC become the biggest drug money laundry facility for Medellin Cartel cocaine dinero bound for the Honduran arms supermarket supplying the Nicaraguan contras with Enterprise weaponry.

      Whenever Aga Hasan Abedi ran low on money he would issue more BCCI stock and sell it to Sheik Kamal Adham, head of Saudi Arabia’s General Intelligence Directorate; or to A. R. Khalil, another top-ranking Saudi intelligence official and CIA liaison. Adham and Khalil got the money to buy the stock by procuring “loans” from ICIC in the Cayman Islands which were never repaid.

      With Secord now running the Enterprise from Riyadh, where he was serving as Reagan’s Chief Liaison to Saudi Arabia, Saudi intelligence was busy laundering drug money through ICIC. Similar loans were issued by ICIC to Sheik Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum, scion of the UAE ruling family, and to Faisal Saud al-Fulaij, who as chairman of Kuwait Airways in the early 1970’s received over $300,000 in bribes from Boeing. Al-Fulaij was also tied to Kuwait International Finance Company.

      These ICIC loans were routed through either Banque de Commerce et de Placements – BCCI’s Swiss branch run by Rothschild lieutenant Alfred Hartman – or the National Bank of Oman, which BCCI owned. [9] The reason Abedi kept running out of money was that BCCI’s Karachi branch, run by Zia ul-Huq’s son, was financing CIA mujahadeen armies in Afghanistan.

      In 1978 one of BCCI’s largest depositors, Pakistani Lieutenant General Fazle Haq, was appointed governor of Pakistan’s Northwest Province. Haq was President Zia’s right-hand man. In his new position he took control of BCCI funding of the mujahadeen. He also took charge of the Pakistani heroin trade.

      BCCI funneled millions to Pakistani military and ISI officials from CIA accounts at its Karachi branch. BCCI was so involved in the CIA effort that its own personnel would often ferry weapons to mujahadeen bases near Peshawar in Haq’s Northwest Province, just inside Pakistan’s border with Afghanistan. These same BCCI employees would then serve as heroin couriers for the trip back to Karachi. The bank became so enmeshed in Pakistani affairs that you could scarcely tell the difference between the two.

    3. Continued from Rothschild's Bank of America
      In addition to the ICCI loans, BCCI was kept afloat by Bank of America, which transferred it a cool $1 billion a day until 1991. Bank of America acted like a global vacuum cleaner, sucking up deposits for the bank from around the world. Most of these deposits were diverted to the Karachi branch. Bank of America also had its own large Karachi branch. There were at least 10 telex lines between Bank of America-Karachi and ICIC in the Cayman Islands.

      By 1980 Bank of America had sold its stock in BCCI but continued to handle most of its business. In 1984 BCCI transferred $37.5 billion through US banks, over half of which was handled by five syndicate banks – Bank of America, Security Pacific (later merged into Bank of America), American Express, (where board members included Henry Kissinger, Edmund Safra and Sulaiman Olayan), Bank of New York (which in 2000 was fined for laundering over $10 billion in drug money for the Russian mafia), and First Chicago (long-time CIA conduit and part owned by Kuwait’s ruling al-Sabah family). [10]


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